1 part per million. Four studies were published in 1998 which further specify phytochemicals and
acetogenins which are demonstrating the strongest anticancerous, antitumorous, and antiviral properties.Thus far, specific acetogenins in graviola have been reported to be selectively toxic to these types of tumor cells: lung carcinoma cell lines;14,16–19 human breast solid tumor lines;prostate adenocarcinoma; pancreatic carcinoma cell lines; colon adenocarcinoma cell lines;liver cancer cell lines;human lymphoma cell lines; and multi-drug resistant human breast adenocarcinoma.
activities. Mode of action studies in three separate laboratories have recently determined that
these acetogenins are superb inhibitors of enzyme processes that are only found in the membranes of cancerous tumor cells.
cytotoxicity assays have been conducted, we have noticed that, although most of acetogenins have
high potencies among several solid human tumor cell lines, some of the derivatives within the different structural types and some positional isomers showed remarkable selectivities among certain cell lines; e.g., against prostate cancer (PC-3). We now understand the primary modes of action for the acetogenins. They are potent inhibitors of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is in an essential enzyme in complex I leading to oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.
A recent report showed that they act directly at the ubiquinone-catalytic site(s) within complex I and in microbial glucose dehydrogenase. They also inhibit the ubiquinone-linked NADH oxidase that is peculiar to the plasma membranes of cancerous cells.
In 1997, Purdue University published information with promising news that several of the Annonaceous acetogenins " . . . not only are effective in killing tumors that have proven resistant to anti-cancer agents, but also seem to have a special affinity for such resistant cells. In several interviews after this information was publicized, the head pharmacologist in Purdue's research explained how this worked. As he explains it, cancer cells that survive chemotherapy can develop resistance to the agent originally used as well as to other, even unrelated, drugs. This phenomenon is called multi-drug resistance (MDR). One of the ways that cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs is by creating an intercellular efflux pump called a P-glycoprotein mediated pump. These types of pumps are capable of pushing anticancer agents out of the cell before they can kill it. On average, only about two percent of the cancer cells in any given person might develop this pump—but they are the two percent that can eventually grow and expand to create multi-drug.....
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